《出师表》节选 （译文选自C. H. Brewitt-Taylor的译本Romance of Three Kingdoms）
Permit me to observe: the late emperor was taken from us before he could finish his life's work, the restoration of the Han. Today, the empire is still divided in three, and our very survival is threatened.
（1）observe ，除了我们常见的表示“观察；庆祝”的意思外，它还可以表示“make a remark or comment about it, especially when it is something you have noticed and thought about a lot”，“评论某事，特别是你注意到或是思考很久的事”。
'He is a fine young man,' observed Stephen.
（2） restoration，“the act of restoring or state of being restored, as to a former or original condition, place, etc”，指“为了回到原来的状态、地点等而进行的恢复的行为”，文中指“恢复汉室”。
Yet still the officials at court and the soldiers throughout the realm remain loyal to you, your majesty. Because they remember the late emperor, all of them, and they wish to repay his kindness in service to you.
（3） repay，除了“偿还债务”外，还表示“If you repay a favor that someone did for you, you do something for them in return.”，指“回报某人的好意”。
It was very kind. I don't know how I can ever repay you.
This is the moment to extend your divine influence, to honor the memory of the late Emperor and strengthen the morale of your officers. It is not the time to listen to bad advice, or close your ears to the suggestions of loyal men.
（4） morale “the amount of confidence and cheerfulness that a group of people have”，指“一群人所拥有的信心和乐观的情绪”，也就是我们常说的“士气”。形容士气，我们通常说low/high morale“士气低落/高昂”，“鼓舞士气”我们可以说，boost morale。
Many pilots are suffering from low morale.
（5）close ears to “对……充耳不闻”，相当于turn a deaf ear to。
You can’t just close your ears to their warnings.
The emperors of the Western Han chose their courtiers wisely, and their dynasty flourished. The emperors of the Eastern Han chose poorly, and they doomed the empire to ruin.
（6） flourish 本意指“植物等茁壮成长”，后引申为“to develop well and be successful”“发展良好或取得成功”，也就是我们常说的“兴盛，繁荣”。
The economy is booming and small businesses are flourishing.
（7） doom,“to make someone or something certain to fail, die, be destroyed etc.”“使某人或某事注定失败、死亡或被毁灭”。常用搭配为be doomed to do sth.“注定要做……”
We are all doomed to die in the end.
Whenever the late Emperor discussed this problem with me, he lamented the failings of Emperors Huan and Ling.
（8） lament “to express feelings of great sadness about something”，“对……感到悲痛”。
The nation lamented the death of its great leader.
I began as a common man, farming in my fields in Nanyang, doing what I could to survive in an age of chaos. I never had any interest in making a name for myself as a noble.
（9）make a name,“If you make a name for yourself or make your name as something, you become well-known for that thing.”指“（因……）而出名”。
He made his name with several collections of short stories.
The late Emperor was not ashamed to visit my cottage and seek my advice. Grateful for his regard, I responded to his appeal and threw myself into his service.
The late Emperor always appreciated my caution and, in his final days, entrusted me with his cause.
（10） entrust，“to make someone responsible for doing something important, or for taking care of someone”，“让某人负责做某件重要的事或负责照顾某人”，即“把某人或某事托付给……”。
When managers entrust employees with important decisions, they signal their respect for those employees.
Since that moment, I have been tormented day and night by the fear that I might let him down. That is why I crossed the Lu river at the height of summer, and entered the wastelands beyond.
Now the south has been subdued, and our forces are fully armed. I should lead our soldiers to conquer the northern heartland and attempt to remove the hateful traitors, restore the house of Han, and return it to the former capital.
This is the way I mean to honor my debt to the late Emperor and fulfill my duty to you.
（11）debt除了“债务”以外，也可以表示“人情债，恩情”。，常用的搭配为：in debt（负债）, owe a debt to…（欠某人钱/人情）。
We will owe a debt to Sandy that we may not be able to repay.
（12） fulfill one’s duty ，“完成某人的职责”。fulfill有“完成，实现，达成，促成”的意思，常用的搭配有fulfill a duty/dream/role/fuction/expectation/wish/agreement等。
I expect that he will do his part to fulfil the agreement between us and him.
My only desire is to be permitted to drive out the traitors and restore the Han. If I should let you down, punish my offense and report it to the spirit of the late Emperor.
Your Majesty, consider your course of action carefully. Seek out good advice, and never forget the late words of the late Emperor. I depart now on a long expedition, and I will be forever grateful if you heed my advice. Blinded by my own tears, I know not what I write.